Defining the Standards for Higher Education

By Muhammad Azeem, Muhammad Bashir Gondal, Khalid Abida, Farah Naz, Ashiq Hussain and Akhtar Munira.

Published by The Learner Collection

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Article: Print $US10.00
Article: Electronic $US5.00

Learning expectations derive from a balance of internal and external contributions to the definition of educational standards. Educational institutions must develop a list of the learning goals/standards for which it will demonstrate assurance of learning. The learning goals or standards translate the more general statement of the mission into the educational accomplishments of graduates.
One of the common concerns voiced by higher education officials of various countries is that states are rushing to jump on the outcomes-based education bandwagon without having clear standards of what the outcomes for students should be. They believe that the outcomes have been defined broadly, with a focus on changing affective behavior (such as building self-esteem) rather than cognitive behavior (such as building knowledge and skill levels). The experience of academic staff directly involved in teaching and assessing student learning is also central to determining and monitoring standards.
Precisely standards include content, performance, and proficiency standards.

1. Content standards refer to what students should know and be able to do.
2. Performance standards tell how students will show that they are meeting a standard.
3. Proficiency standards indicate how well students must perform.

Academic standards in mathematics, English language arts, science, and social studies determine the scope of testing. If content does not appear in the academic standards, it will not be test. The academic standards clarify what must be studied to prepare for tests. If students have learned all of the material indicated by the standards in the assessed content areas, they should do very well on the final tests.
Therefore it is the need at present to define the clear-cut statements of academic and assessment standards because measurement and reporting of student outcomes — their knowledge, skills, achievement, performance and proficiency — is now a major reference point for academic standards. Setting standards is qualitative paradigm of research and validation of standards is longitudinal study based on results of students. This study emphasizes qualitative paradigm of defining standards. This study has explore the direction to define standards and proposed assessment frameworks.

Keywords: Educational Standards, Frameworks

The International Journal of Learning, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp.233-248. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Article: Electronic (PDF File; 1.376MB).

Muhammad Azeem

Doctoral Fellow and Associate Faculty member, Division of Education, University of Education, FAISALABAD, Punjab, Pakistan

Mr. Muhammad Azeem is Doctoral scholar at the Division of Education, University of Education, Lahore under Indigenous PhD Fellowship from HEC Pakistan. After successfully qualifying the course work, he is working on his research project. He has written a number of articles in different magazines and journals. He has presented papers on Quality Ensurance and Validity in the context of Education. His area of interest is Educational Assessment,Evaluation,and Testing. Recently he is visiting Doctoral Research Scholar at School of Education, University of Education, UK.

Dr. Muhammad Bashir Gondal

Director, Punjab Education Assessment System (PEAS), Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan

Dr. Muhammad Bashir Gondal is working as Director Punjab Education Assessment System (PEAS) which organizers national and provincial assessments of students learning in Punjab province. He also worked in University of Education from 2002 to 2005 and still visiting faculty member of Division of Education, University of Education, Lahore. His interested areas are students learning factors associated with learning, baisedness in testing, curriculum instruction, and evaluation.

Khalid Abida

Assisstant Professor, Education, University of Education, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan

Ms. Abida is an eminent educationist. She has 22 years of teaching experience at College and University level. She is a researcher of high caliber and has supervised approximately 250 Research Projects at University level. Currently, she holds the designation of Assistant Professor at University Of Education, Lahore. She is also pursuing her PhD from University Of Education. She has compiled books on diversified topics. The titles of the books are as follows: · Contemporary Modes of Thoughts in Philosophy of 21st Century · Basics of Educational Research with SPS Analysis · Phonetics and Phonology in English · Educational Research and electronic data analysis · Introduction to Education

Asst. Prof. Farah Naz

Deputy Director Education, University of Management & Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan

Ms. Farah Naz is an educationist with a vast experience of over 23 years in teaching, school management and educational quality assurance. She has seved in almost all the provinces on various appointments including Azad Jammu & Kashmir. She had been heading the quality assurance department of “The Educators a project of BSS”. She is masters in Education Leadership & Management. Presently she is serving as Deputy Director Curriculum, Evaluation & Training in Bahria Foundation (Pakistan Navy). She is also a PhD scholer at University of Management & Technology. She is a member of visiting faculity at University of Education Punjab.

Ashiq Hussain

University of Education, Punjab, Pakistan

Mr. Ashiq Hussain is pursuing his PhD in Education. He did his B.A honour with Economics along with B.Ed. He has earned the degree of LLB from the University of Punjab. Earned his M.A in Urdu, Political Science and Education. The researcher has also done his M.Phil in Iqbal Studies. Now He is serving the nation as Dy. District Education Officer. He has served against different administrative posts like, AEO, Headteacher in High Schools and the District Coordinator Officer for AIOU.

Akhtar Munira

Carear Advisor, Beaconhouse University Lahore, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan

Ms. Munira Akhtar is a well known and qualified educationist. She has got 20 years of diversified experience in teaching, career counseling, and as a Language specialist. She also has a rich experience of School Administration. Ms. Munira has taught IELTS, TOEFL, O/A Level English, and English Language Courses to students of different levels and professionals of diverse backgrounds. She is also a visiting faculty member of various prestigious institutions including Kinnaird College and University for women. She is currently working as a Career Advisor in Beaconhouse School System.


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