How and Why Grading

By Muhammad Azeem, Muhammad Tanveer Afzal and Muhammad Iqbal Majoka.

Published by The Learner Collection

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Article: Print $US10.00
Article: Electronic $US5.00

Traditional forms of assessment of knowledge provide a method for assigning numerical scores to determine letter grades but rarely reveal information about how students actually understand and can reason with acquired ideas or apply their knowledge to solving problems. The reflection of the achievement of curriculum objectives and institutional standards, by students, are indicated by the grading process. The model by which the grading process is carried out is what is in question. There are three, most commonly used, grading models employed in most educational settings and institutions. The first model is norm-referenced. Norm-referenced grading refers to an evaluation where students are assessed in relationship to each other. The second is criterion-referenced. Criterion-referenced grading is the process where students are evaluated in a noncompetitive atmosphere; the emphasis is placed on the learning objects and standards. Third is self-referenced. It is based on comparing a learner’s performance with the instructor’s perceptions of the learner’s ability. Learners performing above the level of performance that the instructor perceives them capable receive higher grades than those learners the instructor perceives as having not made as much of an improvement. There is an even greater need for appropriate grading methods for assigning letters to students’ performance. This paper summarizes current trends in academic grading and relates these to the assessment of student outcomes in a specific course. After discussing these grading models the findings were that there is a noticeable shift to the criterion-referenced grading model.

Keywords: Grading, Assessment

The International Journal of Learning, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp.579-596. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Article: Electronic (PDF File; 712.211KB).

Muhammad Azeem

Senior Subject Specialist (Science) and Coordinator I, Punjab Education Assessment System (PEAS), Govt. of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan

Mr. Muhammad Azeem is Doctoral scholar at the Division of Education, University of Education, Lahore under Indigenous PhD Fellowship from HEC Pakistan. He has completed his thesis “Development of Math Proficiency Test Based on Item Response Theory”. His area of interest is Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Testing. Recently he is working as coordinator I for District Wide Large Scale Assessment (DWLSA) funded by World Bank.

Dr Muhammad Tanveer Afzal

Lecturer Education, Secondary Teacher Education Department, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Capital Territory, Pakistan

Muhammad Iqbal Majoka

Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Hazara University Mansehra, Mansehra, Khyber Pukhtonkhwa, Pakistan

Muhammad Iqbal Majoka Post Held at present: Assistant Professor Hazara University Mansehra, Pakistan. Ph.D (Education), M. Sc (Mathematics). Job Description: Teaching and research supervision at M.Ed, M.Phil& Ph.D Level. Field of Interest: Educational Psychology (Learning) & Educational Research Special Experience: A Vast experience of classroom teaching at secondary level in the subjects of mathematics and physics.1.A research paper entitled “Effect of Cooperative Learning on Academic Achievement and Retention of Secondary Grader Mathematics Students” has been published in “Journal of Education Research” Vol 10, No 1, 2007, PP 44-56. Department of Education, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Pakistan 2008. 2.SUPERVISED RESEARCH AT M.PHIL LEVEL: Among the students under supervision, four M.Phil scholars have completed their research and their results for M.Phil degree have been notified. The topics of research theses are : Quality Education in Public and Private Sector at Secondary Level in Hazara Region. Evaluation of Library Services in Govt. Higher Secondary Schools for Boys in NWFP. To Compare Learning Outcomes of 7th Grade Students Taught by Cooperative Learning Versus Traditional Method of Teaching in Social Studies. Effect of Cooperative Learning on Learning Outcomes in Mathematics Class at Primary Level. Research Papers Presented in Conferences: “Effect of Cooperative Learning on Academic Achievement of Secondary Grader Students in Mathematics” Presented in “International Conference on Teaching and Learning ICTL 2007 November 15-16, 2007”.


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