Governments develop and sponsor training interventions to help their citizens stay competitive and employable, and to support the workings of their economies. Training outcomes are normally measured in terms of productivity, wage increase, employability and promotion. Studies show that economic gains from this training are not the norm—some do indicate economic gain, but others do not. So what exactly are those types of training that produce economic outcomes? The literature shows that firm-specific training is more effective in terms of relevance to current work and produces more economic outcomes than voluntary types of training. Is this really the case? Or are there other supporting factors that the literature can identify about what types of training, forms of delivery and supporting mechanisms can assist trainees in gaining economic benefits from training? This paper provides a critical analysis of international reviews and empirical studies on training and the factors that are likely to generate economic benefits for individual trainees, with a view to presenting some policy suggestions on government-sponsored training schemes. Based on the findings, the conclusion is that employer-sponsored-job-related training is the type that has a positive effect on wages, while training programs with job placements increase employment probability for individuals.
|Keywords:||Training Benefits to Individuals, Types of Training|
Senior Research Officer, Research Unit, Institute for Adult Learning, Singapore, Singapore
Director, Centre for Research in Education, Equity and Work, School of Education, University of South Australia, Australia
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